There was never a question that it would take years to transition the world away from passwords. The digital authentication technology, though deeply flawed, is pervasive and inveterate. Over the last five years, though, the secure-authentication industry association known as the FIDO Alliance has been making real progress promoting “passkeys,” a password-less alternative for signing into applications and websites. And yet, you probably still use a lot of passwords every day. In fact, you may not have any accounts protected by a passkey at all, despite broad adoption from Microsoft, Google, Apple, and many more.  

At the RSA security conference in San Francisco next week, Christiaan Brand, co-chair of the FIDO2 technical working group and an identity and security product manager at Google, will present a talk on new features and growth in passkey adoption. He also plans to examine the current challenges that passkeys face in countering the inertia passwords have built up over decades—and the long game of slowly grinding down the password’s dominance.

“What I want to highlight is how far we’ve come, but which problems still remain unsolved,” Brand says. “Passwords are everywhere, and they are bad, but everyone is accustomed to them. Users don’t want to be surprised, and they don’t like change. So it’s very important to think about passkeys as an augmentation. We need to kind of push users toward the thing that will be easier and more secure.”

Over the past year, Brand says, FIDO has made significant progress rolling out features to support its password-less vision. The infrastructure is now in place to back up passkeys so they can sync between devices, get services to prompt users about passkeys rather than always defaulting to username and password, and use Bluetooth-based proximity sensing to share passkey authentication between devices. All three of these points address major usability issues that FIDO publicly set out to improve a year ago.

In practice, though, there are still hurdles, and developing these solutions has taken time. For example, Brand says the new Bluetooth-based proximity-sensing protocol was carefully engineered to avoid the security issues that often plague Bluetooth implementations. The idea was to strip away most of Bluetooth’s functionality and exclusively use the protocol for proximity checks rather than any data transfers. This approach has allowed passkeys to bypass many of Bluetooth’s quirks and reliability issues when attempting to pair devices. 

Developing a coherent “user experience” (UX) for passkeys across different operating systems and web services is an ongoing challenge, though. If you, say, log into your Google account from a Mac using traditional passwords, your credentials still get checked against what Google has on file for your account on one of the company’s servers. But the security and phishing-resistant benefits of passkeys come from the fact that they work differently. If you use a passkey to log into your Google account from a Mac, the cryptographic check happens locally and Apple is never directly involved—everything the user experiences during the interaction is facilitated by macOS, not Google.

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